Anatomy of the Lungs
Human lungs are two spongy organs located on each side of the heart. During inhalation, air flows from the nose or mouth through the pharynx (throat) and larynx (which contain the vocal cords) into the trachea (wind pipe). The trachea divides into two bronchi, which direct air into the right and left lungs.
Within the lungs, the bronchi divide into several smaller bronchioles. Air flows from bronchioles into tiny air sacs, called alveoli. A group of alveoli is referred to as a lobule. Lobules are, in turn, grouped into lobes. The left lung contains two lobes, whereas the right contains three.
A network of tiny blood vessels, called capillaries, surrounds the alveoli. The lining of these blood vessels is so thin that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move between the capillaries and the alveoli. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli and is released from the body during exhalation. Oxygen diffuses in the opposite direction, from the alveoli into the blood, and is carried throughout the body by the circulatory system.
The pharynx is that part of the digestive tube which is placed behind the nasal cavities, mouth, and larynx. It is a musculomembranous tube, somewhat conical in form, with the base upward, and the apex downward, extending from the under surface of the skull to the level of the cricoid cartilage in front, and that of the sixth cervical vertebra behind.
The larynx or organ of voice is placed at the upper part of the air passage. It is situated between the trachea and the root of the tongue, at the upper and forepart of the neck, where it presents a considerable projection in the middle line. It forms the lower part of the anterior wall of the pharynx, and is covered behind by the mucous lining of that cavity; on either side of it lie the great vessels of the neck. Its vertical extent corresponds to the fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebræ, but it is placed somewhat higher in the female and also during childhood. Symington found that in infants between six and twelve months of age the tip of the epiglottis was a little above the level of the fibrocartilage between the odontoid process and body of the axis,
The Trachea and Bronchi
The trachea or windpipe is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the lower part of the larynx, on a level with the sixth cervical vertebra, to the upper border of the fifth thoracic vertebra, where it divides into the two bronchi, one for each lung. The trachea is nearly but not quite cylindrical, being flattened posteriorly; it measures about 11 cm. in length; its diameter, from side to side, is from 2 to 2.5 cm., being always greater in the male than in the female. In the child the trachea is smaller, more deeply placed, and more movable than in the adult.
The Right Bronchus (bronchus dexter), wider, shorter, and more vertical in direction than the left, is about 2.5 cm. long, and enters the right lung nearly opposite the fifth thoracic vertebra. The azygos vein arches over it from behind; and the right pulmonary artery lies at first below and then in front of it. About 2 cm. from its commencement it gives off a branch to the upper lobe of the right lung. This is termed the eparterial branch of the bronchus, because it arises above the right pulmonary artery. The bronchus now passes below the artery, and is known as the hyparterial branch; it divides into two branches for the middle and lower lobes.
The Left Bronchus (bronchus sinister) is smaller in caliber but longer than the right, being nearly 5 cm. long. It enters the root of the left lung opposite the sixth thoracic vertebra. It passes beneath the aortic arch, crosses in front of the esophagus, the thoracic duct, and the descending aorta, and has the left pulmonary artery lying at first above, and then in front of it. The left bronchus has no eparterial branch, and therefore it has been supposed by some that there is no upper lobe to the left lung, but that the so-called upper lobe corresponds to the middle lobe of the right lung.
a small airway of the respiratory system extending from the bronchi into the lobes of the lung. There are two divisions of bronchioles: The terminal bronchioles passively conduct inspired air from the bronchi to the respiratory bronchioles and expired air from the respiratory bronchioles to the bronchi. The respiratory bronchioles function similarly, allowing the exchange of air and waste gases between the alveolar ducts and the terminal bronchioles.
The alveoli are the final branchings of the respiratory tree and act as the primary gas exchange units of the lung. The gas-blood barrier between the alveolar space and the pulmonary capillaries is extremely thin, allowing for rapid gas exchange. To reach the blood, oxygen must diffuse through the alveolar epithelium, a thin interstitial space, and the capillary endothelium;CO2 follows the reverse course to reach the alveoli.
the functional unit of the lung, including a respiratory bronchiole, alveolar ducts and sacs, and alveoli. Called also respiratory lobule
FUNCTION OF THE NORMAL LUNG
The chest contains two lungs, one lung on the right side of the chest, the other on the left side of the chest. Each lung is made up of sections called lobes. The lung is soft and protected by the ribcage. The purposes of the lungs are to bring oxygen (abbreviated O2), into the body and to remove carbon dioxide (abbreviated CO2). Oxygen is a gas that provides us energy while carbon dioxide is a waste product or “exhaust” of the body.
Types of lung diseases
There could be four types of lung disease:
- Airway diseases,
- Lung tissue diseases
- Lung circulation diseases and
- Lung infection diseases.
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, It is one of the most common long-term diseases of children, but adults can have asthma, too.Asthma that begins during childhood is called child-onset asthma. This type of asthma happens because a child becomes sensitized to common allergens in the environment – most likely due to genetic reasons.The child is atopic – a genetically determined state of hypersensitivity to environmental allergens.Adult-onset asthma affects women more than men, It can also be triggered by some allergic material or an allergy. It is estimated that up to perhaps 50% of adult-onset asthmas are linked to allergies. However, a substantial proportion of adult-onset asthma does not seem to be triggered by exposure to allergen(s); this is called non-allergic adult-onset asthma.
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Allergic asthma(extrinsic)asthma is characterized by symptoms that are triggered by an allergic reaction. Allergic asthma is airway obstruction and inflammation that is partially reversible with medication. Allergic asthma is the most common form of asthma, affecting over 50% of the 20 million asthma sufferers.Over 2.5 million children under age 18 suffer from allergic asthma. Many of the symptoms of allergic and non-allergic asthma are the same (coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath or rapid breathing, and chest tightness). However, allergic asthma is triggered by inhaled allergens such as dust mite allergen, pet dander, pollen, mold, etc. resulting in asthma symptoms.
Allergic asthma 1 Allergic asthma
Non-Allergic asthma (intrinsic) is triggered by factors not related to allergies. Like allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma is characterized by airway obstruction and inflammation that is at least partially reversible with medication, however symptoms in this type of asthma are NOT associated with an allergic reaction. Many of the symptoms of allergic and non-allergic asthma are the same (coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath or rapid breathing, and chest tightness), but non-allergic asthma is triggered by other factors such as anxiety, stress, exercise, cold air, dry air, hyperventilation, smoke, viruses or other irritants. In non-allergic asthma, the immune system is not involved in the reaction
Tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea.Bacterial tracheitis often develops following an upper respiratory infection (URI), such as the common cold. Following a URI, bacteria are able to more easily invade the trachea, causing infection, inflammation, and rapid swelling. however, a number of other factors, both infectious and non-infectious, may also cause inflammation of the trachea. Usually these other factors do not affect the trachea in isolation but may also involve other structures higher up and lower down the respiratory tract.A number of different bacterial species are responsible for the majority of tracheitis cases. Frequently this occurs as a secondary bacterial infection that follows a viral respiratory tract infection like influenza (seasonal flu) or H1N1 swine flu. The common cold can also lead to tracheitis but this type of viral infection is usually isolated to the upper parts of the respiratory system.
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Inflammation And Irritation Of Bronchial Tubes.nflammation in the lining of the bronchial tubes can cause bronchitis. The bronchial tubes are the airways that make the connection between the trachea, which is also known as the windpipe, and the lungs. The lining of the bronchial tubes acts as a protection and a covering for the respiratory system.
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What Is Pneumonia?
Pneumonia is a lower respiratory lung infection that causes inflammation in one or both lungs. Air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli, can then fill up with fluid or pus, which leads to coughing, fever, chills, or difficulty breathing.Pneumonia is not a single disease. It can have more than 30 different causes. Understanding the cause of pneumonia is important because pneumonia treatment depends on its cause. Pneumonia comes in different forms and is caused primarily by bacteria or viruses, and less commonly by fungi and parasites.
Types of Pneumonia
Bacterial pneumonia can attack anyone, at any age.Bacterial pneumonia can occur on its own or develop after you’ve had a cold or the flu.Dozens of different types of bacteria can cause pneumonia.
The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in adults is Streptococcus
Atypical pneumonia is caused by bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae.
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is sometimes seen in people whose immune system is impaired (due to AIDS or certain medications that suppress the immune system).
Other bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.
Most respiratory viruses attack the upper respiratory tract, but some cause pneumonia, especially in children. Most of these pneumonias are not serious and last a short time but others can be severe.
Viral pneumoniacaused by the influenza virus may be severe and sometimes fatal. The virus invades the lungs and multiplies; however, there are almost no physical signs of lung tissue becoming filled with fluid. This pneumonia is most serious in people who have pre-existing heart or lung disease and pregnant women.
In extreme cases, the patient has a desperate need for air and extreme breathlessness. Viral pneumonias may be complicated by an invasion of bacteria, with all the typical symptoms of bacterial pneumonia.
Mycoplasms are the smallest free-living agents of disease in humankind. They are not classified as to whether they are bacteria or viruses, but they have traits of both.
Mycoplasms usually cause a mild form of pneumonia, but may be severe. They affect all age groups, but occur most often in older children and young adults.
Other Types of Pneumonia
Tuberculosis can cause pneumonia (tuberculosis pneumonia). It is a very serious lung infection and extremely dangerous unless treated early.
Pneumocystis carini pneumonia (PCP) is caused by an organism believed to be a fungus. PCP may be the first sign of illness in many persons with AIDS.
PCP can be successfully treated in many cases. It may recur a few months later, but treatment can help to prevent or delay recurrence.
Other less common pneumonias may be quite serious and occur more often. Various special pneumonias are caused by the inhalation of food, liquid, gases or dust, and by fungi.
Rickettsia (also considered an organism somewhere between viruses and bacteria) cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Q fever, typhus and psittacosis, diseases that may have mild or severe effects on the lungs.
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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
What is ARDS
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the sudden failure of the respiratory (breathing) system. It can develop in anyone over the age of 1 who is critically ill. A person with ARDS has rapid breathing, difficulty getting enough air into the lungs and low blood oxygen levels.
What Causes ARDS?
Causes of ARDS include:
Sepsis (bacterial infection of the blood)
Pneumonia or other lung infection
Multiple blood transfusions
Breathing in salt water
Breathing in harmful smoke or fumes
Breathing vomit into the lungs
Overdoses of tricyclic antidepressants
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What is Asbestosis?
Asbestosis is a disease that involves scarring of lung tissue as a result of breathing in asbestos fibers. The disease causes the lung tissues and the lining of the chest wall to thicken and harden. The scarring makes it hard for you to breathe and for oxygen to get into the blood. The disease worsens slowly over time. In some people the disease causes no symptoms, while in others it can cause severe symptoms.
Asbestos was previously widely used as an insulator and fire retardant until it became known that its microscopic fibers cause disease, including cancer. Asbestos exposure occurred in industries including the asbestos mining and milling industries, construction, and fireproofing.Breathing in asbestos fibers can cause scar tissue to form inside the lung.Asbestosis usually develops slowly. Breathing becomes more difficult over time. A person with asbestosis may eventually need supplemental oxygen therapy to help them breathe. The disease can lead to failure of the heart and lungs.In some cases, the fibers might damage the lungs or the membrane covering the lungs, leading to illness and even death.
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CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE.(COPD)
What Is COPD?
COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is a lung disease that block airflow and make breathing difficult.Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two most common conditions that make up COPD .In 80-90% of cases, it is caused by smoking. Other causes of COPD can include:genetic reasons, occupational dusts and chemicals,second hand smoke,frequent lung infections as a child ,wood smoke and other biomass (animal dung, crop residues) fuel used for cooking.
What are the Symptoms of COPD?
Symptoms of COPD often don’t appear until significant lung damage has occurred, and they usually worsen over time. For chronic bronchitis, the main symptom is a cough that you have at least three months a year for two consecutive years. Other signs and symptoms of COPD include:
- Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities
- Chest tightness
- Having to clear your throat first thing in the morning, due to excess mucus in your lungs
- A chronic cough that produces sputum that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish
- Blueness of the lips or fingernail beds (cyanosis)
- Frequent respiratory infections
- Lack of energy
- Unintended weight loss (in later stages)
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A cough, also known as tissus is a sudden reflex humans and many animals have to clear the throat and breathing passage of foreign particles, microbes, irritants, fluids and mucus – it is a rapid expulsion of air from the lungs. Coughing can be done deliberately or involuntarily.
Doctors divide coughing into three groups, based on how long the cough has lasted. There are three types: acute (coughing less than 3 weeks), sub-acute (coughing 3-8 weeks), or chronic (coughing longer than 8 weeks).
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP)
What is the COP?
Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a rare lung condition in which the small airways (bronchioles) and air exchange sac (alveoli) become inflamed with connective tissue. This is an uncommon illness occurring in one study in 6 out of 100, 000 hospitalizations. It usually starts with a flu-like illness associated with fever, malaise, fatigue and cough. The physician examination is typical of other interstitial pneumonias but the chest x-ray and chest CT scan are distinctive and should lead an experienced lung specialist to suspect the diagnosis.
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What is Histoplasmosis?
Histoplasmosis is an infection in the lungs caused by inhaling the spores of a fungus. This fungus, called Histoplasma capsulatum.The fungus grows in soil, as well as bird and bat droppings. It is spread by breathing in the spores of disturbed soil.Many histoplasmosis infections do not produce symptoms. The illness occurs in two forms. The acute form is much like a mild case of influenza and is rarely serious.The chronic form, which is much less common, may resemble tuberculosis. In rare cases, the disease will spread throughout the body. This is most likely to happen in the very young, the very elderly and people with impaired immune systems, including those with cancer or AIDS. If histoplasmosis has spread, it can be deadly if it is not treated.
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What is HMPV?
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is member of a family of viruses and was first recognized in 2001 in the Netherlands, but it most likely has been causing respiratory illnesses for at least 50 years worldwide. Human metapneumovirus can cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections in people of all ages. Upper respiratory tract infections include colds, while lower respiratory tract infections include pneumonia or bronchitis. Respiratory illnesses from hMPV most often occur in young children or older adults.The virus is most likely to spread by direct or close contact with the respiratory secretions (through sneezing and coughing) of people infected with the virus or by contact with objects and surfaces that have the virus on them.
What is Influenza?
Influenza, or flu, is a serious respiratory illness. It is easily spread from person to person and can lead to severe complications, even death.Influenza (flu), also referred to as seasonal flu, is a highly contagious illness caused by the influenza virus. Anyone can get the flu as it is spread easily from person to person, usually when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
What is Lung Cancer?
Lung cancer is a cancer that starts in the lungs. When a person has lung cancer, they have abnormal cells that cluster together to form a tumor. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells grow without order or control and destroy the healthy lung tissue around them. These types of tumors are called malignant tumors.There are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).About 10% to 15% of all lung cancers are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), named for the small cells that make up these cancers. SCLC often starts in the bronchi near the center of the chest, and it tends to spread widely through the body early in the course of the disease. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common. It makes up about 80 percent of lung cancer cases. This type of cancer usually grows and spreads to other parts of the body more slowly than small cell lung cancer does. There are three different types of non-small cell lung cancer: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma.Adenocarcinoma:A form of non-small cell lung cancer often found in an outer area of the lung. It develops in the cells of epithelial tissues, which line the cavities and surfaces of the body and form glands.Squamous Cell Carcinoma:A form of non-small cell lung cancer usually found in the center of the lung next to an air tube (bronchus).Large Cell Carcinoma:A form of non-small cell lung cancer that can occur in any part of the lung and tends to grow and spread faster than adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
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What is Mesothelioma?
Mesothelioma is a form of cancer. It involves the cells that line the lungs, abdominal organs and heard; that lining is called the mesothelium. In the most common form of mesothelioma, malignant tumors grow on the sac that lines the chest cavity and protects the lungs—the pleura. This is known as pleural mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is uncommon.
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What is Pertussis?
Pertussis—called whopping cough—is a respiratory illness caused by bacteria. It is very contagious and is most dangerous for infants and young children. The coughing makes it difficult to breathe and often ends with a “whoop” noise. It is caused by bacteria that spread from person to person when an infected person sneezes or coughs. The infection may start out like a common cold—with mild fever and a running nose—but symptoms get severe after a couple of weeks. People with pertussis get violent coughing fits that last several minutes and typically end with a high-pitched “whoop” sound as they try to take a breath. During the coughing fits, you may have difficulty breathing, you may vomit or choke, and your lips and nails may turn blue from lack of oxygen. You may even lose consciousness briefly.Pertussis is most dangerous for infants especially under age 1.
pertussis lung x ray
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension(PPH)
What is Primary Pulmonary Hypertension (PPH)?
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and its cause is unknown. These arteries carry blood from your heart to your lungs to pick up oxygen.Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare lung disease that leads to narrowing of the blood vessels of the lungs. This narrowing worsens over time and causes high blood pressure in these blood vessels. It is sometimes call unexplained pulmonary hypertension because it describes pulmonary hypertension when there is no underlying heart or lung disease causing the high blood pressure. Symptoms of PPH can develop so slowly that you may have PPH for years without knowing it.
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Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH).
What is Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)?
PAH is a disease in which the pressure in a patient’s pulmonary arteries becomes dangerously high. Pulmonary arteries carry blood that has returned from the body to the lungs, where the blood receives a fresh supply of oxygen. That high blood pressure puts a strain on the heart. PAH is one of five types of pulmonary hypertension (PH). PAH worsens over time and is life-threatening. It is a relatively rare disease.
X Ray severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
What is Cystic Fibrosis?
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to form in the lungs, pancreas and other organs. In the lungs, this mucus blocks the airways, causing lung damage and making it hard to breathe. In the pancreas, it clogs the pathways leading to the digestive system, interfering with proper digestion.Cystic fibrosis is the second most common inherited disorder occurring in childhood The thick, sticky mucus produced by a person with CF blocks the airways in the lungs. This makes breathing difficult. Bacteria grows in the mucus, leading to life-threatening lung infections that can damage the lungs. The mucus also clogs the pancreas, which prevents normal digestion and leads to malnutrition. People with CF are also at increased risk of diabetes and osteoporosis.
Pneumoconiosis (Black Lung Disease)
what is Pneumoconiosis ?
Pneumoconiosis, also known as Black Lung Disease, is an occupational lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust. There are two types of pneumoconiosis— simple, known as coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) and complicated, known as progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). Pneumoconiosis is a type of interstitial lung disease. In this type of disease: the lung is damaged (in this case, by coal dust); the walls of the air sacs are inflamed; and the lung stiffens from scarring of the tissue between the air sacs. People who inhale coal dust may not have any symptoms for many years. Over time, however, as the coal dust has settled deep in the lung, it eventually causes the lung to harden. As the lung hardens, breathing becomes more difficult and gets worse over time. Possible complications of pneumoconiosis include:
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Cor pulmonale (failure of the right side of theheart),Lung cancer,Pulmonary tuberculosis, Respiratory failure.
Pulmonary Vascular Disease.
what is Pulmonary Vascular Disease?
Pulmonary vascular disease is a category of disorders. All affect the blood circulation in the lungs. They include:
chronic thromboembolic disease.
pulmonary arterial hypertension.
pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.
Pulmonary Embolism: A pulmonary embolism happens when the blood flow through the lung’s artery is blocked suddenly. This is caused by a blood clot that traveled from somewhere else in the body—usually a leg or the pelvis—and has not broken up in the blood stream. Symptoms included difficulty breathing, chest pain, fainting and a rapid heart rate. A pulmonary embolism can damage the heart, and if not treated immediately, can cause death.
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Chronic Thromboembolic Disease:This is a condition in which old blood clots remain in the arteries within the lungs. This can cause complications including pulmonary arterial hypertension.
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Pulmonary Veno-occlusive Disease: This is an extremely rare form of high blood pressure in the lung area; in most cases, the cause is not known. It may be caused by a viral infection or occur as a complication of certain diseases, including lupus, leukemia, lymphoma, chemotherapy, or bone marrow transplantation. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, fainting, coughing up blood and having difficulty breathing while you lie flat.
Arteriovenous Malformations: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMS) are congenital tangles within in the circulatory system. Your circulatory carries blood to and from the heart and includes arteries, veins and capillaries. The tangles of arteries and veins interfere with the blood circulation in an organ. They occur most often in the head but also happen in internal organs (including the lungs), limbs and torso.
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Pulmonary Edema: Pulmonary edema occurs when fluid builds up in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. It is usually caused by heart failure, with a rise in the vein’s blood pressure going through the lungs. As the pressure in the blood vessels increases, fluid is pushed into the lungs and causes a shortness of breath.
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what is Sarcoidosis?
Sarcoidosis is a disease caused by small areas of inflammation. It can affect any part of the body but is most common in the lungs—called pulmonary sarcoidosis. In pulmonary sarcoidosis, small patches of inflamed cells can appear on the lungs’ small air sacs (alveoli), breathing tubes (bronchioles) or lymph nodes. The lungs can become stiff and may not be able to hold as much air as healthy lungs. In serious cases, sarcoidosis can cause scar tissue in the lungs, which can affect the lungs’ ability to move oxygen into the bloodstream. Nobody yet knows what causes sarcoidosis. Most scientists believe it is a disease of the immune system, where the body’s natural defense system does not function properly. Some believe that sarcoidosis might be the result of a respiratory infection caused by a virus. Others blame toxins or allergens in the environment.
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Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.
what is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome?
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome—known as SARS—is a virus that was identified during an outbreak in Asia in 2003. SARS is caused by a group of viruses called the coronaviruses. SARS can be moderate to severe; most people with SARS develop pneumonia. Scientists believe the main way that SARS seems to spread is by close person-to-person contact, when someone infected with SARS coughs or sneezes. The virus also can spread when a person touches a surface or object contaminated with infectious droplets (from a cough or a sneeze) and then touches his or her mouth, nose, or eye(s).
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What is silicosis?
Silicosis is a chronic lung disease caused by breathing in tiny bits of silica dust. Silica is the second most common mineral in the earth’s crust. It is a major component of sand, rock, and mineral ores like quartz. People who work in jobs where they can be breathing in these tiny silica bits—like sandblasting, mining, construction and many others—are at risk for silicosis. When people breathe silica dust, they inhale tiny particles of silica that has crystallized. This silica dust can cause fluid buildup and scar tissue in the lungs that cuts down your ability to breathe. There are three types of silicosis: Chronic silicosis, the most common type of silicosis, usually occurs after 10 or more years of exposure to crystalline silica at low levels.
Accelerated silicosis occurs 5 to 10 years after exposure and is caused by exposure to higher levels of crystalline silica.
Acute silicosis can occur after only weeks or months of exposure to very high levels of crystalline silica. Acute silicosis progresses rapidly and can be fatal within months.
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What is Sleep Apnea?
Sleep apnea is a very common disorder that causes you to stop breathing while you sleep—from a few seconds to minutes. These breathing pauses often occur 5 to 30 times or more per hour. Normal breathing usually starts again, sometimes with a snort or choking sound. If you have sleep apnea, it disrupts your sleep at least three nights a week. You sleep poorly, so you are tired during the day. There are three types of sleep apnea—obstructive, central, and complex. Obstructive is the most common form of sleep apnea.
Obstructive sleep apnea most often happens when your airway has collapsed or is blocked during sleep. This causes shallow breathing or breathing pauses. When you try to breathe, you might snore loudly from air that squeezes past the blockage.
Central sleep apnea happens when the part of your brain that controls breathing doesn’t send correct signals. This means you make no effort to breathe for brief periods of time.
Complex sleep apnea is a combination of obstructive and central sleep apnea.
what is Tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that usually attacks the lungs, but can attack almost any part of the body. Tuberculosis is spread from person to person through the air. When a person with TB in their lungs or throat coughs, laughs, sneezes, sings, or even talks, the germs that cause TB may spread through the air. If another person breathes in these germs there is a chance that they will become infected with tuberculosis. It is important to understand that there is a difference between being infected with TB and having TB disease. Someone who is infected with TB has the TB germs, or bacteria, in their body. The body’s immune system is protecting them from the germs and they are not sick. This is referred to as latent TB.
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X-ray showing pulmonary tuberculosis in the left lung, X Ray Miliary tuberculosis.
THE HOMOEOPATHIC APPROACH
Homeopathy is rare among systems of medicine in possessing a clear and thorough view of the dynamics of health and disease. In homeopathy disease is regarded as an affection of the spiritual core of the person, and the treatment of disease is guided by specific laws of healing.Homeopathy is a field of therapeutics based on the principle of ‘like cures like’. The symptoms of a patient are treated by administering a homeopathic medicine that is capable of producing similar symptoms in a healthy individual.The choice of the remedy is mainly based on the symptom totality,especialy mental symptoms are very important.